Mario Saturno


O lançamento do Amazônia-1 trouxe-me à memória a incrível saga para se ter esse satéite, especialmente os empecilhos da Justiça Brasileira e da busca de financiamento para terminar o satélite.

A Missão Espacial Completa Brasileira previa a Base Espacial de Alcântara, o foguete lançador e os satélites de coleta de dados e sensoriamento remosto. Em meados dos anos 1990, foi concebido o Satélite de Sensoriamento Remoto, sendo licitado em 1997, mas travado pela Justiça. Nenhuma surpresa, né?
No final de 2000, a gerência composta por Carlos Eduardo Santana, Jânio Kono e Marcos Quintino da Silva (os maiores especialistas que o Brasil teve) montaram uma nova equipe com novos integrantes como Roberto Lopes, Sebastião Varotto e eu, pessoas essenciais -os dois primeiros-. E, também, conceberam uma nova e mais moderna versão do SSR-1, Satélite de Sensoriamento Remoto. Havia algumas necessidades básicas, como usar câmaras grandes e evitar um fracasso certeiro.
O resultado inicial do projeto produzido pela equipe agradou tanto que, em setembro de 2001, ganhou novo status: Plataforma Multi Missão e com carga útil da primeira missão para observar a Amazônia. Em dezembro, somente metade do satélite foi licitado com sucesso, o medo da disputa judicial fez a gerência optar por cancelar a compra do sistema de controle de três eixos e de computação.
 Aí veio crise financeira do Brasil, mudança das chefias, que implicou em nova tentativa de desenvolver internamente, o que atrasou o projeto do início de 2003 até 20 de setembro de 2005, quando o grupo responsável estimou em 27 anos para cumprir a tarefa. De 2005 a 2008, foram anos dedicados também à busca de financiamento e de um parceiro que repassasse a tecnologia de controle. O governo prometeu recursos do CNPq que não vieram. Mas, parceiros, apareceram dois israelenses e três europeus. E que foram ouvidos para a elaboração da concorrência, para que todos tivessem a mesma oportunidade.
Parecia que fecharíamos 2008 com o projeto finalizado, mas um dos grupos tinha uma empresa parceira com índices contábeis ruins. A lei faculta ao órgão público aceitar com garantia ou recusar, considerando a tecnologia de ponta, optamos por apenas empresas com saúde financeira. Novamente, disputa na Justiça, e um juiz que quis forçar o INPE o que a lei facultava. Parece incrível, mas é verdade. Finalmente, o diretor Gilberto Câmara resolveu usar o acordo com a Argentina e fez uma compra da estatal argentina INVAP. E, hoje, temos o Amazônia-1!
O satélite monitorará o desmatamento e agricultura com uma alta taxa de revisita. Mas o principal ganho é a validação da Plataforma Multimissão (PMM), ganho em confiabilidade e a redução de prazos e custos para futuras grandes missões, aquelas da ordem de um bilhão de reais, que criaria um parque industrial competitivo e com ambições no mercado externo.
Deveríamos começar com um satélite radar de banda L para mapear geologicamente o Brasil e monitorar debaixo das copas das grandes árvores da Amazônia. Lembro que a Argentina já fez dois nos últimos anos e que este país tem um terço do nosso PIB.
 
Mario Eugenio Saturno (cientecfan.blogspot. com) é Tecnologista Sênior do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) e congregado mariano

Fonte: - Postado em 15/03/2021



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